Orthognathic surgery is usually performed to correct the underlying skeletal deformities of the jaw and this procedure improves the aesthetic appeal and functionality in the best manner. When the bite problems become severe, orthodontic treatment becomes inadequate and patients may not able to correct the facial deformity with the help of orthodontic methods. That is exactly where the importance of an advanced treatment option comes in. In such a situation, orthognathic surgery is the best available treatment option and it always brings best and long lasting results. Orthognathic treatments can be classified in to three categories and they include Sagittal Split Osteotomy of the Mandible, Lefort I Osteotomy of the Maxilla and Genioplasty.
1) Sagittal Split Osteotomy of the Mandible (lower jaw)
Many people suffer from deficient lower or upper jaw and this surgical method is the best option available to correct these types of deformities. The dental surgeon performs the operation on the lower jaw or mandible to move it forward for correcting the deficient lower jaw and in order to correct of the large lower jaw, the surgeon moves the jaw backward. The operation is being performed behind the back teeth and, for maintaining the bony contact of the jaw, it will be sectioned in a unique manner as well. There will not be any gaps in the bone that need to be filled in, and top surgeons always use Rigid Internal Fixation or RIF method to stabilize the osteotomies. Patients do not need to wire the teeth together during the healing phase as well.
2) Lefort I Osteotomy of the Maxilla (upper jaw)
Upper jaw deformities are solved using this type of surgery and, various issues like open bite, long- face problems, short-face problems, under bite and overbite can be solved with this surgery. An open bite malocclusion always accompanies the long face syndrome and the correction of the bite is done using Lefort I Osteotomy surgery. The surgeon moves the upper jaw upward to close the bite and it reduces the amount of gumminess of the smile. In order to correct short face, upper jaw will be brought down to increase the lower facial height and smile as well. This type of orthognathic surgery is also performed to treat open bite and it involves the impaction of the back part of the upper jaw to allow the lower jaw to rotate closed. Other problems like under bite and overbite can also be addressed with the help of this surgery.
Genioplasty is being performed to move the chin in the most suitable direction based on the individual facial appearance and the movements can be a forward, upward, downward or backward. Since it involves the bottom area of the lower jaw, this surgery is also known as inferior border osteotomy. Many people mistake this procedure as chin replacement and the fact of the matter is that it has nothing to do with chin implant. During this procedure, the lower jaw will be repositioned and in order to undergo this type of orthognathic surgery, patients do not necessarily need to take orthodontic treatment.